Facing The Facts With An Information Technology Degree

Getting an information technology degree makes perfect sense in a world where the technology’s expansion rate shows no signs of slowing down. Those who love to work with computers and are looking for a solid and dependable career choice would be wise to consider the information technology field. No matter where one goes in the world, IT professionals will find their skills in demand.

It is no secret how much daily life has come to depend on computers and their various aspects. From computer programming to network engineering, the demand for intelligent and detail focused individuals are an essential element. This is especially true if things are expected to stay running in a functional and efficient manner.

Unbeknownst to many, there are a number of different career choices when it comes to the information technology field. While some careers are very detail oriented and have individuals working in solitary environments, others require the cooperation of many departments at a time. While some careers require an individual to think fast on their feet others simply require following preset instructions.

As long as a person has an interest in computers, there is likely a career in information technology that they will find fulfilling. As technology changes so do certain aspects of an information technology career. This guarantees an individual will never get stuck in a rut when it comes to their job.

More often than not, getting an information technology degree will also entail getting a particular type of certification in such areas as Cisco’s CCNA or Microsoft’s MCSE and other applications. These specialized skills can help further their career and gain just the earning power they have been looking for. In fact, many companies only hire individuals with qualifications held in these types of programs.

A reputable information technology program is one that works closely with vendors such as Microsoft to help students get certified in all programs from MCSA and MCAD to Comptia’s A+ or Net+. Because technology changes as rapidly as it does, students may find they will need to update their certification from time to time. However, this keeps them at the forefront of the newest technologies as they emerge.

As technology progresses, the need for computer savvy technicians also rises; however, IT positions are not just filled by those walking in off the street. Until a person gets the right skills with the right education, an IT job will be completely off limits. Taking part in an accredited program will get the wheels going on an individual’s IT career in no time.

Depending on what an individual hopes to achieve, he or she can spend as little as one year learning the ropes for a new IT career. Extensive degrees can take two to four years to complete. The bonus of getting an information technology degree is that a person can build their career goals in the direction that fits them best.

For those already in the field looking to advance themselves, an accredited school can offer financial aid. This can help cut back on the reservations that many adults have about going back to school. Many schools offer financial aid specialists that help individuals hatch just the right plan to get them where they want to go.

An information technology degree has helped many individuals get high paying jobs with both large and small companies in every industry across the board. Some information technology jobs can boast the highest starting salaries of any career choice available. This has made information technology jobs one of the most sought after careers ever.

Andy West is a writer for Virginia College. Learn more about obtaining an Information Technology Degree at Virginia College. Vertical Measures is a search engine marketing company.

Why Innovation is Important to Business Success?

Innovation is coming up with a new idea and turning it into an effective process, a new product or service. The implementation of creativity and innovation in business is likely to incorporate success and help you stand competitiveness in the market. Innovation can be referred to as something new or introduced differently and has impact on market or society.

Organizations need development first to keep presence in the market, and second to be competitive. There are a lot reasons why you need innovation in your business. A successful business model won’t be developed if you have a walking dead organization, meaning to have a stagnated business that does not embrace change and refuse or don’t know how to let creativity breath come in.

You need instead dynamism on different levels. You may innovate by coming up with new ideas of new products or reshape existing ones. Innovation can also be implemented by improving services and the way the organization is operating. As businesses and activities vary, there are also different types of innovation, and you choose your model depending on your needs and markets’.

Innovation Importance

Innovation has always been so important, thus it was under the radar of academic research. A lot of scientific studies have been carried by researchers to understand innovation process and how can Innovation Impact Enterprises? They gone through importance of innovation for businesses and investigated the implementation of innovation in different models and measurement of performance.

With the new challenges of globalization and open markets, competition toughens considerably and need for change is becoming more crucial. A recently published study that could be found here (http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/JIBBP/2012/245013/245013.html) carried by researchers from a Faculty of Management and Economics in Czech Republic has investigated this defy and noticed how Czech business companies “assign big importance to both inner and outer innovation.”

The effective innovation process is something done strategically based on creative thinking and innovation strategy. Unlike the invention process that starts by problem and goes for solutions, effective innovation can start by supposing a solution and looks what problem it solves.

Innovation and Performance

Another study (http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/JIBBP/2013/768378/768378.html) from South Africa has gone through the understanding of “conceptual framework of an innovation system model”. Researchers said that “Education and training bodies were found to be amongst the most important participants, supporting firms in the innovation system due to their contributions to the development of sufficiently qualified human resources and by their contribution to R&D capacity – two of the most important determinants of innovation”.

There are a lot of factors that affect innovation process of business including “science, technology and R&D intermediaries” as stated by the researchers. They also stressed on the importance of government as well as “Financial institutions and venture capitalists… due to the role that finances play in innovative activities.”

Innovation and Knowledge

One of the matters that should not be overlooked in innovation is relation between knowledge and innovation. Researchers focused that “knowledge and expertise are transferred serve as both a source for, and stimulus to, innovation”. So, effective and true innovation is led by knowledge. “The transfer of knowledge from universities to firms or from MNEs to their national branches was one of the better-known knowledge transfer linkages identified” the study confirms.

Measuring Innovation

Innovation is believed to be a generator of growth and success for businesses. As stated in this research “relation between innovation and performance provide evidence that this relation is positive”. Yet, measuring innovation results and their impact has not been something easy. It is something done based on different metrics. “Measuring innovation should be carried out effectively, efficiently (must bring relevant information to the corporate management) and economically (must be done at a reasonable cost)” as stated by the mentioned research.

What differs a business from another is the new ideas it comes up with. You can live on imitating others’ steps for a while, but this won’t last, or it won’t take your far away to meet success you opt for. To ensure success for your business, you need to think out of the box and come up with original ideas that might be in many times simple, but would define your business model and will lead success of your organization.

Frank Reynold. I’m a writer specializing in scientific news including medical, business, marketing and a lot more. I have contributed articles to different news outlets.

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Current and Projected Clean Coal Technology Market size in terms of volume and value 2015-2025 by FMI Estimate

Coal remains an important source of energy for the world and the demand is growing rapidly in many developing countries as they enjoy long-overdue economic growth. Over the 50 years from 2000 to 2050, demand might double to exceed 7000 million tonnes of coal equivalent and so account for almost 30% of the world’s primarily energy supply, up from todays 25%. Although newly imposed policies coupled with stricter emission regulations are in favour of renewable sources, coal is expected to remain a vital source for global power generation. However, there will be pressure to exploit this resource in the best possible manner to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. New and stricter emission regulations imposed on coal-fired power plants have forced plant operators to divert towards cleaner and more efficient technologies such as clean coal technology and boost the global clean coal technology market.

Technological advancement in the field of energy and power have led to more effective combustion of coal resulting in lower emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide. Clean coal technology market is primarily driven by developed countries depended upon coal, and strong economic growth in the developing economies fuelled by coal requirement, not only for electricity generation, but also for the production of heavy industrial goods such as steel and cement. The objective of clean coal technology is to reduce the amount of CO2and other greenhouse gas emission for the same amount of power generated.

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Global Clean Coal Technology Market: Drivers & Restraints
The global clean coal technology market is anticipated to grow significantly during the forecast period. The growth in the global clean coal technology markets is mainly driven by the ever-increasing demand for reliable and clean power generation technology coupled with rapid urbanization and industrialization growth. Furthermore supportive policies and norms to increase expenditure on environment safety, fuel cost savings and technological advancement in the existing as well as new plants is anticipated to accelerate the growth in the global clean coal technology market by the end of 2025. The only factor to act as a restrain in the global clean coal technology market is the high cost in the installation of clean coal technology plants. Government policies, regulations and laws are encouraging the manufacture of large-scale, coal-fired plants with higher efficiency, lower water consumption and low emission controls is expected to accelerate the growth of global clean coal technology market by the end of 2025.

Global Clean Coal Technology Market: Segmentation

On the basis of technology type
The global clean coal technology market is segmented into
* Combustion Technology
o Pulverized coal combustion
o Fluidized bed combustion
* Gasification Technology
o Integrated coal gasification
o Hydrogen from coal process
o Multipurpose coal gasification
* Enabling Technology
o Carbon capture and storage technology
o Carbon sequestration technology

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Global Clean Coal Technology Market: Region-wise Outlook
In terms of geography, the global clean coal technology market has been divided in to seven key regions including North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan, Middle East & Africa and Japan. The global clean coal technology market is expected to register healthy CAGR during the forecast period. Asia Pacific is expected to be one of the key markets to invest heavily in global clean coal technology market. The implementation of clean coal technology in Asia Pacific has been driven by highly polluted countries such as China and India which are investing in global clean coal technology market to improve plant efficiency and reduce fuel cost. Europe and North America are also heavily reliant on clean coal technology and are expected to register a steady CAGR during the forecast period.

Global Clean Coal Technology Market: Key Players
Some of the market participants in the global clean coal technology market include Clean Coal Technologies Inc., General Electric Company, Alstom Power and Siemens AG.

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Information Technology Something New?

When people hear the words “Information Technology,” the first things that come to mind are computers and the Internet. It may also bring up words like “network,” “intranet,” “server,” “firewall,” “security,” as well as more arcane expressions such as “router,” “T-1,” “Ethernet,” or the mysterious and exotic-sounding “VoIP” (pronounced “voyp”).

In fact, information technology is all of these things, and more. It’s hardly new, however. Information technology is as old as the brain itself, if you think of the brain as an information processor. As far as I.T. being a science, even that goes back as far as the earliest attempts to communicate and store information.

And that is essentially what information technology is: the communication and storage of information, along with the ability to process and make use of the information stored. In this chapter, we’ll begin with a brief history of I.T., what it comprises today, and the different major types of I.T. systems available today.

A Short History of Information Technology

As human societies have grown in size and complexity, so has the need to collect, store and transmit information. While it could be argued that brains represent a form of “bio-information technology,” Greek word “Tektra” – from which we get the word “technology” – really refers to scientific or mechanical knowledge, particularly that which involves the use of tools. Therefore, we’ll begin our journey with humans first attempts to record and transmit knowledge through mechanical means.

The Neolithic Period and the Bronze Age

We might not have thought of it as “information technology” several thousand years ago when we as a species were painting animals on cave walls. But in fact that may be exactly what it was.

Using a combination of tools that included manganese “crayons” and clay that was colored with various pigments, early humans left these images on the walls of a cave near Lascaux, France and on cliffs in the Algerian Sahara.

These have been dated as being approximately 18,000 and 8,000 years old respectively. Unfortunately, there is no way to be certain exactly what message was being communicated (a problem our own descendants 15,000 years from now may very well encounter from what we leave behind!)

Since the images depict animals that were commonly hunted at the time, and given the importance of game animals to a hunting-gathering culture, it’s possible that such images were attempts to present information about such game, or part of a rite designed to ensure a successful hunt.

The invention of writing systems – including pictograms such as hieroglyphics, alphabetic writing and “syllabic” systems – seems to have taken place almost at the same time as the development of agriculture. Agriculture introduced such formerly unknown concepts as land ownership, advanced trade and the accumulation of wealth, which in turn led to more complex societal structures.

As you might expect, this necessitated more detailed and efficient record-keeping. Alphabetic writing has a substantial advantage over pictograms (hieroglyphs), because a relatively limited number of symbols (letters) can be used over and over in infinite combination to communicate nearly anything. (As you will see later, modern I.T. uses only two of these symbols!)

Preserving and storing such information posed certain challenges; information either had to be inscribed on stone or clay tablets (which were heavy) or animal skins, wax tablets or papyrus (which weren’t durable).

The Hellenistic World

The Classical Greeks were the first people of record to attempt to find scientific, rational explanations for natural phenomena. Some of the earliest proto-computers known were mechanical devices developed by the Greeks. One of these was a form of abacus (which also developed and was used in ancient China). The device facilitated and simplified mathematical calculation.

Consider REALLY early Greco-Roman Abacus

Another early computational device was the antikthera, greek in origin. An antikthera was discovered by a Greek sponge diver over a century ago, it was only recently that this 2100-year-old device was reconstructed and shown to be an early form of computer designed to chart the movements of the sun, moon and five planets known at the time.

Early Programmable Devices

By the time the gradual break-up and fall of the Roman Empire was complete in the year 476 C.E., scientific and technological advances in the Western world had ground to a halt. While much of the scientific knowledge of the Greeks was preserved by Irish monks and Arab scholars, it wasn’t until the fourteenth century that principles of engineering were rediscovered and applied to information. The first of these was of course the printing press.

Although the concept of movable type printing had been developed in China some four hundred years earlier, it was Gutenberg’s device in 1447 that revolutionized communications, making it easier and faster to record and disseminate information than ever before. The first truly programmable device would not come along for another 354 years, however.

The Jacquard Loom of 1801 was a product of the Industrial Revolution. This invention used a series of specially punched paper cards that functional as templates, allowing for the automatic weaving of highly intricate patterns. Those punch cards became very significant to computing in the 1950’s, 60’s and 70’s.

The next development was Charles Babbage’s “Analytical Machine” – a fully-programmable computer that unfortunately was never actually built. Babbage worked on designs from 1837 until his passing in 1871. This steam-powered mechanism would have also utilized punch cards, with a central processing unit (CPU) and a form of memory storage in the form of a system of pegs inserted into rotating barrels.

The Analytical Machine would have been capable of storing 1,000 numbers of up to fifty digits each, and perform six different mathematical operations, including the calculation of square roots. Babbage’s ideas were incorporated into early electronic computing devices being developed in the late 1930’s and 1940’s, although not all of these were actually programmable. The first truly programmable computers – able to store and use information – did not come into common use until the 1950’s, and yes – made use of punch cards (those born before 1965 may remember playing with them).

Of course most people born in the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s just take for granted that the Information Technology we have today is from fairley recent developments in science, mechanics and electronics. But we know different now don’t we. And therefore can better appreciate what we have available to us now.

Dwayne Garrett is the author of several eBooks and popular software applications, he also offers an affordable IT Resource Guide that will help you to make sense of Information Technology and your business. Visit:
http://www.InfoTechForSmallBusiness.com

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Earning Potential Increases With Information Technology Degree

Many people today are pursuing an information technology degree. Whether they are going to be a specialist in computer sciences or looking to climb the corporate ladder, having some strong computer based informational skills is essential in today’s modern world.
Information technology encompasses a wide variety of topics and subjects. There are many things an IT specialist might choose to focus on. Computer engineering and information and communications are both part of what an IT specialist gains knowledge and experience about, as well as other topics. Anything having to do with design, manufacture, operation, maintenance and repair of information technology products, or providing related services across all industries all falls under information technology.
It’s no small fact that each of the major computer manufacturers and designers of computer software most used by the public and the business sector also have certification programs while others offer some form of information technology degree. Whether it’s the common use of Microsoft or something more advanced like Linux and Ubuntu operating systems, there will be some form of education required to handle them and a suitable degree program to understand and master them.
Many online courses and colleges offer degrees in information technology. While it is a fact that online courses do not offer in-person trainers and teachers at a student’s side while they are learning, students are still provided with ways to ask important questions and resolve any issues they might have with a lesson.
For the best earning potential in the field of information technology, a minimum education of at least a bachelor degree in information technology is essential. This proves to a potential employer that you have ability to think logically while possessing other important job skills such as “soft skills” – ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing. Vendor certification is also available for those learners or IT specialists who want a faster and more focused training to acquire a specific skill-set than is offered through a traditional information technology degree. Popular vendor certification courses in IT include those offered by Microsoft, such as MCSE. However, in order to get a job in some of the more complex areas of information technology, such as software engineering and database administration, a graduate degree in information technology is normally preferred.
Students and graduates of IT courses can move among many different fields and careers, from working with marketing firms and large corporations to mastering robotics and networks. Web design and multimedia also fall under the IT category. With a well rounded education, the numerous jobs that open up with an IT degree make IT graduates successful in so many different fields.
The most important thing to look for if choosing to obtain an online degree information technology is for a school to be accredited. This means that the school of choice meets certain set standards and provides quality education. Only by obtaining an accredited online degree in information technology can a student hope to be accepted for some of the best careers and training in the field of information technology.
Learning online is a great way to improve existing education without putting other aspects of your life to a halt. The field of information technology is vast and steadily growing, encompassing a wide range of topics and technologies necessary to many fields of business. As careers blossom and people develop new progressive ways to share information, an information technology degree becomes ever more important. Earning a degree online allows students to continue working in their chosen field and push their careers forward.

For more details, please visit our website: www.collegesanddegrees.org

Information Technology – Online Degree Options

Technology is continuing to grow and widen every year to encompass a multitude of avenues. Companies and organizations need trained individuals who know the ins and outs of technology in order to provide many services needed to make the company work at the local level and beyond. Many online colleges are offering degree distinctions in information technology. These accredited programs are preparing students to enter the work force and become active, successful members of the industry.
The profession of information technology focuses on a computer’s process, and training teaches students how to manage all the aspects of information in conjunction with technology. Professionals work in all areas of technology by designing hardware, software, Internet applications, communication networks, and more. Individuals will be able to find a career to fit their computer and technology interests because of the wide scope of options available. An education in information technology helps students gain general computer knowledge and apply it to specific areas inside the workplace.
Online colleges offer degree distinctions in information technology from certificates to keep professionals up to date on the latest techniques, to a master’s degree and even a doctorate. Through different programs students will learn and posses a wide range of required skills. These skills can include troubleshooting, problem solving, changing technology, developing technology, computer literacy, and more. Degree programs are numerous so students need to know what their career goals are before an appropriate program can be selected. However, every program is designed to give a well-rounded education and earning a degree will be beneficial and critical to starting a career in the field.
Certificate programs are mainly created for already working professionals who want to gain more specialized training in an area or want to learn how to use new technology. Introductory certificate programs are a wise choice for individuals who want to make sure that a career in information technology is right for them. Depending on the certificate program selected courses can range in length from six to 12 months.
An online bachelor’s degree program is a good choice for individuals who are starting out in the industry. Courses will adequately prepare students to meet the needs of the company or organization they work for. Courses may include online training in computer sciences and how to install, configure, and operate all the components that make up information technology infrastructure, networks, and servers. Other courses could include instruction on how to implement information technology to meet the specific needs of a company. On average a bachelor’s degree program could take a student four years to complete. Most online colleges that offer this degree may require their students to complete approximately 135 credit hours.
Many online colleges offer degrees for students to continue their education and become highly skilled and proficient in information technology, allowing them to move up in the work place. The career options upon graduation are wide and can include positions as technical consultants, programmers, trainers, management positions, and more.
Use your passion for computers and technology by searching out online information technology degree programs that match your interests and that fit your schedule. Many degree options await the dedicated student and the completion of these programs promises a fulfilling future.

For more details, please visit our website: www.collegesanddegrees.org

Find More Information Technology Articles

Broad Fields of International Journal of Engineering and Technology

Journals on technology are highly-selective journals that cover the topics appealing to a broad group of audiences of different engineering, science, and other related branches. Journals aim to cover the recent research and development topics in the field of engineering and science. The team of researchers doesn’t publish their articles for the monetary benefits but they are devoted to supporting the scientist and academics who wish to publish their work. The articles published in an international journal of Engineering and Technology can be accessed online by the students, scientists, scholars, practitioners, engineers, and whoever wishes to expand their knowledge in the field of technology.

The journals aim to focus on the technological development in a broader sense and not distributing a functional area of research by facilitating the researcher from different verticals for the publication. The articles published can be openly accessed by the technology researchers in the government agencies, scholars, and the general public. Therefore, these journals are treated as a great platform to collect the in-depth information and details about the certain topic relating to the field of engineering and technology. The articles publish scientific research relating to countless disciplines of the engineering field from theoretical, analytical, and practical research to physical implications and quantitative discussion envisioned together for academic and industrial progress. The fields of engineering include aerospace, biomedical, civil & structural, electrical, software development, electrical, mechanical, electronic, fluid, nuclear, geotechnical, chemical, mineral & mining, optical, robotics & automation, etc. The international journal of Engineering and Technology publishes the original research papers and, study and reports of industrial experience analysis. The original research papers display the academic research including conclusive, logical, and empirical outputs. Whereas, the studies and reports of experience analysis focus on the real-time research and conclusions assumed by the site engineers and industry experts.

How to calculate impact factor?

The impact factor is a degree of the frequency in which the average article in a journal is mentioned in a specific year. Impact factors calculate the impact of an overall journal and not just the impact of the individual articles.

*Citation analysis – it is a process to calculate the impact of an article published in the International journal of Engineering and Technology by evaluating the number of times other authors, scholars, or researchers mention it in their work.

*Altmetrics – Altmetrics is a measurable calculation of the quality and quantity of consideration that a scholarly work is getting through social media, article downloads, and citations.

The author is associated with the International Journal of Advanced Research (IJAR), a Peer Reviewed, Open access Journal and has written many articles for different topics.

Public V Private Sector Innovation – The Basis For Success

A lot has been written over the years about both public and private sector innovation. Following the wave of managerialist reform in the 1980s and 90s it has been widely believed that the Public Sector could improve its innovation performance by looking to the Private sector. That is not the conclusion we drew from a recent comparative study of Private Sector CEOs and Public sector heads of agencies experience of innovation. Innovation was commonly pursued for different reasons irrespective of whether in the public or private sector. The approach adopted differed primarily based on the degree of uncertainty presented by the environment and whether the innovation was in response to an unexpected situation or part of a deliberate repositioning. The means available for being proactive, as well as the options available for managing uncertainty in the different contexts, most explained the difference between the sectors and the likelihood of a successful outcome.

The backdrop to the debate

Over the past few decades public sector innovation has been a hot topic in many countries. This has been in response to rapidly changing national and global circumstances requiring increased innovation in both policy and delivery to meet the needs of diverse stakeholders within limited budgets. While the need for innovation has increased there is a general perception that the public sector lacks the capacity to deliver it. This perception has been reinforced in the research literature, with the public sector frequently characterised as conservative, bureaucratic and reluctant to change. However, much of this past commentary has been based more on opinion (and perhaps a little prejudicial stereotyping) rather than solid evidence. There have been few direct comparisons made between the public and private sectors approach to innovation and none that considered both successful and unsuccessful innovations. As with all areas of public management, innovation in the public sector has been influenced by changing ideological conceptions of governance and public management. The New Public Management (NPM) of the 1980’s widely advocated the adoption of private sector management principles in Government. One of the implications has been a focus on the similarities between the public and private sectors in their approache to innovation, rather than the differences. We sought to understand what is unique about the public sector and what implications this has on the approach to innovation most appropriate to the public sector context.

How we did it

We collected 84 stories of innovation from the 25 CEOs and 20 Public Sector leaders (generally heads or deputy heads of Government Departments). Forty two of these stories were of innovation experiences which were successful and a further 42 unsuccessful. Detailed qualitative analysis was then undertaken to identify patterns within and between these stories. What this analysis overwhelmingly revealed was that, regardless of whether it was the Public Sector or the Private Sector, the way the leader thought about innovation was driven by the context they found themselves in and the problems they needed to solve – not some higher meaning or concept of innovation. Understanding and accounting for the context in which the innovation occurs is therefore crucial to the adoption of the best approach. The stories were drawn from a wide variety of contexts so we looked for those contextual characteristics that were common. Two characteristics emerged:

– The Level of Uncertainty the CEO/Head held about both their organizational situation and the environment it was operating in; – The Level of Pro-activity inherent to the CEO/Heads situation – whether the innovation was part of a planned strategy or a response to external triggers that needed to be incorporated.

Public V Private: What are the differences?

The first and most obvious difference was the existance of three quite distinct approaches to innovation in the private sector. Following the wider literature we labelled these incremental, evolutionary and revolutionary. The public sector, howerver, only displayed two, which we have called:

– Ministerial: innovation that occurs through interaction with and on behalf of the government’s political appointee; and – Departmental: innovation that occurs within a department and has been initiated internally and led internally.

Interestingly, and contrary to what many might expect, relatively few Public Sector innovations could be classified as incremental – characterized by low levels of uncertainty. This may reflect the generally more complex environment which the Public Sector confronts – particularly the diversity of stakeholders and interests which must be managed during any change to existing process. Secondly, the private sector interviews showed that the approach taken by the CEOs to different types of innovation can have a significant impact on the likelihood of success or failure. The same can be said of the public sector but the reasons for this are completely different.

Irrespective of whether a private sector CEO was reacting to an organizational circumstance or proactively innovating there was little difference in their likely success or failure. In the public sector the difference was dramatic. Indeed there was only one successful innovation from a reactive context in the public sector. Conversely the complexity or uncertainty appeared to have little impact on success for the public sector indeed the public sector had more revolutionary successes than failures suggesting a well developed innovation capability when circumstances are right – a finding which challenges those negative stereotypes!

There is a case for comparison or benchmarking between ‘Departmental’ innovation and the private sector. However ‘Ministerial’ innovation, presents such a significantly different innovation context that comparison with private sector approaches is of limited value. For example, comparisons are sometimes made between the role of the Board and that of the Minister and Government in terms of oversight of executive functioning. When it comes to innovation, the Board will generally take its lead from the corporate executive. In the public sector, in addition to performing an oversight role, the Government is an important source of innovation initiatives. Departments have an obligation to pursue political initiatives and these may be introduced with relatively little advance warning and with limited scope for modification or adaptation at the Departmental level. Consequently, public sector managers are far more likely to find themselves reacting than are their private sector counterparts.

A further and particularly significant difference is that the private sector assumes and accepts that failures are a normal part of innovation. The failures are acceptable as long as the successes outweigh the losses from a commercial point of view. This is reflected in the use of probability based approaches – an approach completely absent in the public sector profiles. In the private sector, return on investment is the ultimate measure of success. In this context, speed to market can be more important than a perfectly implemented idea. Removal of all uncertainty associated with the idea is a luxury that it cannot always afford nor indeed always need. By contrast, failure is not acceptable in the public sector due to the attendant political risks.

Historically the public sector, in many Western Democracies at least, has been very successful in the implementation of quite complex and revolutionary innovations – not least the extensive reforms of the 80s and 90s. However, it has arguably succeeded because it can use time as a resource to reduce uncertainty in a way that the private sector cannot. Innovation in the public sector then is highly sensitive to time and the quality of the idea, in a way that does not exist in the private sector.

It is significant then that of the thirty public sector stories collected we only had one successful story where the innovation was initiated in a reactive context. To put it another way, where the public service had little influence over the idea or the timing of the implementation, the chances of failure were substantially increased. The concern is that the public services in many countries may increasingly be confronting an innovation environment where reduced influence over the nature of the idea and the timing is the norm. The implication of this is that it removes some of the key strengths of public sector innovation, by reducing the time taken to implement complex public policy, and the ability of the public service to temper bad ideas through the reduction of uncertainty. If this trend is believed likely to continue, new models are needed designed to deal specifically with this environment.

Dr Chris Goldspink is an Executive Director of the Sydney Australia based research and consulting firmIncept Labs. The company helps SMEs, large corporates and Government deal with uncertainty in current and future environments by providing targeted research and supporting innovation, risk management, change and quality governance.

The Duration of Technology Licensing

Innovators charge companies that use their technology as a form of intellectual property by employing different contracting approaches. Licensing of the innovation during the usable duration of time that the producing company benefits for the technology introduces a difficult benefit and cost appropriation concept that requires a mathematical approach. In licensing, the factors that influence the cost and time allocation for the innovation form part of the technology transfer decision, two of the main ones including fixed fees and royalties. In the determination of the actual technology transfer charge and the actual duration of the charge, certain factors such as the type of technology, the type of industry and competitive environment contribute to the consideration of the appropriate charging method. Licensing considerations available to innovators highlight the various technology leakage impacts and the effect that the irregular transfer of the innovation has on the monopoly impact that a company enjoys in the market with several competitors. The basic assumption in the considerations is that there are many companies competing for the technology and the innovator seeks to find the most appropriate method to continue making revenue from the technology once sold (Raspudic 6).

Type of Contracts and Duration As mentioned above, the two types of contracts widely employed in licensing innovation to companies include fixed-fee and royalty payments. Despite the fact that the two licensing contracts have several similarities, distinctions however, stand between them in various fundamental perspectives. In the fixed fee alternative, the technology owner charges a fixed fee on the product and makes it available to all competing companies on take-or-leave basis of offer. In this contract perspective, meeting the initial fixed fee implies that the company agrees the offer and effectively gives the company the rights to use the technology as a license. In the determination of the fixed fee, the number of companies competing to take up the offer forms an integral determinant force. The concept of royalty arrangement finds shape on the unit output analysis where the innovator charges a specific predetermined royalty fee (Raspudic 4).

Licensees become beneficiaries of the technology if they meet the royalty fees. As employed in fixed-fee contracting, the number of licensees determines the amount of royalty charges. The determination of the active duration of a license depends on the type of contract up to when the technology utility reduces to an outdated product or leaks out to competitors’ hands. When the technology leaks, the innovator must extend its life through a second stint of operations where an updated version of the technology must enter the production system.

Licensing a second version of the technology introduces a concept of short-term and long-term usability of the technology, which apply in both fixed-fee contracts and royalty contracts.

Model to Determine the License of Choice and Duration

The mathematical model facilitates deliberating on the appropriate consideration to make in choosing a suitable licensing contract and its duration against a backdrop of competing factors. The model facilitates the determination of an optimal duration, which best captures the revenue earning concept that the innovator keenly follows to stay in business. Within a competitive environment where technology is a central factor of productivity, potential of innovation changes in the future, differentiation in industry needs and a variety of conditions for protection of intellectual property rights, the most suitable form of licensing may offer a difficulty to innovators. The model classifies technological advancements as destructive elements of innovation since licensing needs increase and make it difficult to hold onto licensees.

Advancements in technology or innovation, also referred to as technology leakage, drives intellectual property rights further away from the innovator and leave an irreversible mark. The preservation of intellectual property rights when technology advances gets to a difficult level since it is hard to track copying.

More than one company competes in the operations in which the technology functions. The model divides the life of the license contract into two main periods covering the entire chargeable duration. Period 1 includes four possible contract versions, two short-term and two long-term contracts each for fixed-fee and royalty licenses. The expiration of the first period leads to the introduction of second period that has a contract for fixed-fee and the royalty license. Period 1 license operates during the first period of operations of the company during which the technology assist the company to remain competitive in the market (Raspudic 7).

Continuous research and development counter expiration of the technology and deliver a newer version of the innovation that has a separate contractual agreement, leading to further competitive potential in the market. Certain considerations in the determination of duration and cost include the cost of monopoly that continues to decrease with contracts signed under every innovation. The cost of production depends on the nature of innovation during period one and two, where irreversibility and technology leakage determine setting of license fees and duration. Technology leakage leads to loss of revenue to the innovator since the monopoly cost reduces with technology leakages.

The cost of leaked innovation depends on the nature of leaked technology as well as the latest innovation information that the innovator possesses in order to devise the updated technology. Vertically integrated innovator does not face technology leakage and commitment emerges since the industry monopoly becomes easier with very innovation (Raspudic 10). Bertrand competition considers an environment where the profitability of the innovation best suits one of the competing companies. Fixed fee licenses best deliver results if one company enjoys exclusive rights on the innovation. Firms with lowest costs make meaning to the model and the absence of technology leakage changes the balance.

Fixed fee licensing is practical in cases where technology leakage is rampant and the investor incurs extra investment costs to mitigate losses. Innovation 2 after research and development makes sense to operations if it produces additional benefits in reducing competition. Long term and short term fixed-fee and royalty contracts deal with technology leakage differently. Royalty contacts have a better coverage of long term duration license needs than fixed contracts. Other contracts include valorem royalties that fit high technology industrial needs, two part tariffs with both fixed fees and royalties characteristics.

To view more articles by Morgan he is currently affliated with UkWritingcentre.co.uk. He writers best uk dissertations, research papers, thesis and book reports. Looking for Uk Custom writing service? Feel free to contact us.

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Are Innovation Courses Right For You?

Innovation. It doesn’t really sound like something you can learn in a classroom. But as innovation courses pop up left and right, you start to wonder: is this really as good as it sounds?

Innovation courses promise creativity, ingenuity, inspiration, collaboration–all good things. And for the most part, they deliver. Ask any writer, any artist, any creator, and they’ll tell you all about their creative process–because it is a process, a set of steps that they follow to produce something kind of amazing. It’s not a science, no, but creativity is far from abstract, either.

It’s also subjective. What works for one person doesn’t always work for another. What inspires one person doesn’t always inspire another. And what one person does when they run out of inspiration isn’t always what another person does. True professionals will always, always do this, though: keep going.

Inspiration isn’t some magical kingdom where fairies wave their magic wands and grant ideas like wishes. Inspiration is more like a luxury; you would very much like to have it, just to make your life easier, but it isn’t necessary. Any true professional will tell you that, too.

That’s where innovation courses come in. Innovation is an integral part of design thinking, which is just a fancy way of solving problems creatively. Design thinking, and by extension, innovation, courses give you all the tools you need to give analytical thinking a rest and think outside the box. They teach you the creative process, how to keep going when you’ve run dry on inspiration, how to create something kind of amazing yourself, something that solves a serious problem within your business.

And to solve a little of that subjectivity problem, they teach you to do this is a collaborative, team-centered environment. You may not all agree, but two (or three or four or a whole company of) brains are always better than one.

But seriously. Design thinking? Innovation? Actual courses for design thinking and innovation? It still sounds a little iffy, right? How do you know it’s not just a fad, the next cool, cutting edge thing to bandwagon on?

Because today’s business environment isn’t a fad either. Companies have to do more with less, new products are being rushed to save collapsing margins, and markets are being invaded by competitors and copy-cat foreign companies with much lower cost structures. The whole nine yards. Things are changing. The modus operandi is changing.

The success of a business tomorrow is starting to depend almost entirely on how crises are solved today.

And innovation courses give you the competitive edge, by teaching you how to think in new, creative ways, in order to solve all these problems that don’t have clear-cut, textbook answers. Innovation courses teach you how to innovate, simple as that.

And anyone can be an innovator, a problem-solver and a problem-finder, as long as they have the right tools.

Stanford’s Innovation Masters Series offers advanced design thinking and innovation courses for business leaders in today’s challenging business environment. It is a collaboration between the Stanford School of Engineering, the Stanford Design Group, d.school, and the Design Program.